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101 footnotes found

A constructive expedient to achieve a symmetrical stability is exemplified by the Mailu system of canoe-building, where a platform bndges two parallel, hollowed-out logs. Cf. Author's article in the „Transactions of the Royal Society of S. Australia”, Vol. XXXIX, 1915, pp. 494–706. Chapter IV, 612–599. Plates XXXV-XXXVII. [przypis autorski]

A number of good portraits of the S. Massim type are to be found in he valuable book ot the Rev. H. Newton, In Far New Guinea, 1914 and in he amusingly written though superficial and often unreliable booklet of the Rev. C. W. Abel (London Missionary Society), Savage Life in New Guinea (No date). [przypis autorski]

A short article on this subject has been published by the Rev. M. Gilmour, now head of the Methodist Mission in New Guinea. („Annual Report of British New Guinea”, 1904-5, p. 71.) I used this article in the field, going over it with several natives of Kavataria, and I found it substantially correct, and on the whole formulated with precision. The need for extreme compression of statement has, however, led the Author into one or two ambiguities. Thus, the constant mention of „feasting” might give a wrong impression, for it is alwayls the matter of a public distribution of food, which is then eaten apart, or in small groups, while the word „feast” suggests eating in common. Again, the data about the „sea-chief”, as Mr. Gilmour calls the leader of the privileged clan in Kavataria (cf. Chapter IX, Division III), seemed to me over-stated when he is said to be „supreme”, to have „the right of determining an expedition”, and especially when it is said that he „had the right of first choice of a canoe”. This latter phrase must involve a misunderstanding; as we saw, each sub-clan (that is, each sub-division of the village) build their own canoe, and a subsequent swapping and free choice are out of the question. Mr. Gilmour was fully acquainted with the facts of the Kula, as I learnt from personal conversation. In this article, he mentions it only in one phrase, saying that some of the expeditions „were principally concerned in the exchange of the circulated articles of native wealth … in which trade was only a secondary consideration”. [przypis autorski]

According to a useful habit of the terminology of science, I use the word Ethnography for the empirical and descriptive results of the science of Man, and the word Ethnology for speculative and comparative theories [przypis autorski]

All this is discussed at length in Chapter XVII, Division IV. [przypis autorski]

Already Dr. C. G. Seligman has noticed that there are people of an outstanding fine physical type among the Northern Massim, of whom the Trobrianders form the Western section, people who are „generally taller (often very notably so) than the individuals of the short-faced, broad-nosed type, in whom the bridge of the nose is very low”. Op. cit., p. 8. [przypis autorski]

Also in the before quoted article in the „Economic Journal”, March, 1921. [przypis autorski]

An example of this ill-judged attitude of interference is to be found even in a book written by an exceptionally well informed and enlightened missionary, In Far New Guinea, by Henry Newton. In describing the feasts and dancing of the natives, he admits these to be a necessity of tribal life: „On the whole the feasting and dancing are good; they give excitement and relaxation to the young men, and tone the drab colours of life”. He himself tells us that, „the time comes when the old men stop the dancing. They begin to growl because the gardens are neglected, and they want to know if dancing will give the people food, so the order is given that the drums are to be hung up, and the people settle down to work”. But in spite of Mr. Newton's recognition of this natural tribal authority, in spite of the fact that he really admits the views given in our text, he cannot refrain from saying: „Seriously, however, for the benefit of the people themselves, it would be a good thing if there could be some regulations — if dancing were not allowed after midnight, for while it lasts nothing else is done. — The gardens suffer and it would help the people to learn self-restraint and so strengthen their characters if the dancing could be regulated”. He goes on to admit quite candidly that it would be difficult to enforce such a regulation because „to the native mind, it would seem that it was the comfort of the white man, not the benefit of the native which was the reason for the regulation”. And to my mind also, I am afraid! The following quotations from a recent scientific work published by the Oxford Press The Northern d'Entrecasteaux, by D. Jenness, and the Rev. A. Ballantyne, 1920 are also examples of the dangerous and heedless tampering with the one authority that now binds the natives, the one discipline they can be relied upon to observe that of their own tribal tradition. The relations of a church member who died, were „counselled to drop the harsher elements in their mourning”, and instead of the people being bidden „to observe each jot and tittle of their old, time-honoured rites”, they were advised from that day forth to leave off „those which had no meaning”. It is strange to find a trained ethnologist, confessing that old, time-honoured rites have no meaning! And one might feel tempted to ask: for whom it is that these customs have no meaning, for the natives or for the writers of the passage quoted? The following incident is even more telling. A native headman of an inland village was supposed to keep concealed in his hut a magic pot, the „greatest ruler of winds, rain, and sunshine”, a pot which had „come down from times immemorial”, which according to some of the natives „in the beginning simply was”. According to the Authors, the owner of the pot used to descend on the coastal natives and „levy tribute”, threatening them with the magical powers of the pot if they refused. Some of the coastal natives went to the Missionary and asked him to interfere or get the magistrate to do so. It was arranged they should all go with the Missionary and seize the pot. But on the day „only one man turned up”. When the Missionary went, however, the natives blocked his path, and only through threats of punishments by the magistrate, were they induced to temporarily leave the village and thus to allow him to seize the pot! A few days later the Missionary accordingly took possession of the pot, which he broke. The Authors go on to say that after this incident „everyone was contented and happy”; except, one might add, the natives and those who would see in such occurrences the speedy destruction of native culture, and the final disintegration of the race. [przypis autorski]

Both statements of Professor Seligman in the Melanesians (p. 89) are in entire agreement with the information I obtained among the Mailu. See „Transactions of the Royal Society of S. Australia”, 1915, pp. 620-629, [przypis autorski]

By „current view”, I mean such as is to be found in text-books and n passing remarks, scattered through economic and ethnological literature. As a matter of fact, Economics is a subject very seldom touched upon either in theoretical works on Ethnology, or in accounts of field-work. I have enlarged n this deficiency in the article on Primitive Economics, published in the „Economic Journal”, March, 1921. The best analysis of the problem of savage economy is to be found, in spite of its many shortcomings, in K. Bűcher's Industrial Evolution, English Translation, 1901. On primitive trade, however, his views are inadequate. In accordance with his general view that savages have no national economy, he maintains that any spread of goods among natives is achieved by non-economic means, such as robbery, tributes and gifts. The information contained in the present volume is incompatible with Bucher's views, nor could he have maintained them, had he been acquainted with Barton's description of the Hiri (contained in Seligman's Melanesians.) A summary of the research done on Primitive Economics, showing ncidentally, how little real, sound work has been accomplished, will be found in Pater W. Kopper's Die Ethnologische Wirtschaftsforschung in „Anthropos”, X XI, 1915–16, pp. 611–651, and 971–1079. The article is very useful, here the author summarises the views of others. [przypis autorski]

Cf. Professor C. G. Seligman, Chapters XXXVII and XXXVIII. [przypis autorski]

Cf. Professor C. G. Seligman. Op. cit, Chapter XLIV. [przypis autorski]

Cf. Professor C. G. Seligman, op. cit., Chapters XL and XLII. [przypis autorski]

Cf. Professor C. G. Seligman. Op. cit., p. 584. [przypis autorski]

Cf. Professor C. G. Seligman, The Melanesians, Chapter LIV, Burial and Mourning Ceremonies (among the natives of the Trobriand Islands, of Woodlark and the Marshall Bennetts). [przypis autorski]

Cf. The Father in Primitive Psychology (1926), originally published in „Psyche”, vol. iv, No. 2. [przypis autorski]

Cf. The Mailu, by B. Malinowski, in „Transactions of the R. Society f S. Australia”, 1915; Chapter iv. 4, pp. 612 to 629. [przypis autorski]

Cf. the writer's op. cit. Argonauts of the Western Pacific. [przypis autorski]

Comp. D. Jenness and A. Ballantyne, The Northern d'Entrecasteaux, Oxford, 1920, Chapter XII. [przypis autorski]

Comp. for more detail, the various aspects of chieftainship I have brought out in art. cit. Primitive Economics, op. cit. (Argonauts), and the articles on „War” and on „Spirits”, also referred to previously. [przypis autorski]

Comp. the account of this institution in Argonauts of the Western Pacific (references in Index s. v. Gwara). Also descriptions in Prof. Seligman's Melanesians, and in the present writer's The Natives of Mailu („Trans. R. Soc. of S. Australia”, vol. 39), of the gola or gora among the Western Papuo-Melanesians. [przypis autorski]

Comp. the writer's account of the Milamala, the feast of the annual return of the spirits, in Baloma; the spirits of the dead in the Trobriand Islands („Journ. of the R. Anthrop. Institute”, 1916). The food offerings in question are described on p. 378. [przypis autorski]

Compare also No. VI (A), in the Synoptic Table of Kula magic, in Chapter XVII, p. 418. [przypis autorski]

Compare also the apposite criticism of my expression „pure gift” and of all it implies by M. Marcel Mauss, in L'Année Sociologique. Nouvelle Série. vol. i, pp. 171 sqq. I had written the above paragraph before I saw M. Mauss's strictures, which substantially agreed with my own. It is gratifying to a field-worker when his observations are sufficiently well presented to allow others to refute his conclusions out of his own material. It is even more pleasant for me to find that my maturer judgment has led me independently to the same results as those of my distinguished friend M. Mauss. [przypis autorski]

Compare Professor C. G. Seligman, op. cit., pp. 663–668; also the Author, Article on War and Weapons among the Trobriand Islanders, in Man, January, 1918. [przypis autorski]

Compare Professor C. G. Seligman, op. cit., the parallel description of he social institutions in the Trobriands, Marshall Bennetts, Woodlark Island nd the Loughlands, Chapters XLIX–LV. [przypis autorski]

Compare the article on 'Baloma' in the „Journal of the Royal Anlhrop. Inst.”, 1916, where I describe the beliefs in the two surviving principles in detail, without mentioning that the kousi is found exclusively in the case of a sorcerer. This I found out during my third expedition to New Guinea. [przypis autorski]

Compare the Author's article on Fishing and Fishing Magic in the Trobriands, Man, June, 1918. [przypis autorski]

Compare the linguistic analysis of this spell in Chapter XVIII. [przypis autorski]

Compare therefore Chapter XII, Division IV. [przypis autorski]

Comparing the frail yet clumsy native canoe with a fine European yacht, we feel inclined to regard the former almost in the light of a joke. This is the pervading note in many amateur ethnographic accounts of sailing, here cheap fun is made by speaking of roughly hewn dug-outs in terms of „dreadnoughts” or „Royal Yachts”, just as simple, savage chiefs are referred o as „Kings” in a jocular vein. Such humour is doubtless natural and refreshing, but when we approach these matters scientifically, on the one hand we must refrain from any distortion of facts, and on the other, enter into the finer shades of the natives' thought and feeling with regard to his own creations. [przypis autorski]

Die Symmetric von Handlungen aber nennen wir das Prinzip der Vergeltung. Dieses liegt tief verwurzelt im menschlicfaen Empfinden — als adaquate Reaktion — und ihm kam von jeher die grösste Bedeutung im sozialen Leben zu (Die Gemeinde der Bánaro, Stuttgart, 1921, p. 10). [przypis autorski]

For an account and analysis of abuse and obscene expressions, cf. op. cit., Sex and Repression in Savage Society or the writer's article in „Psyche”, v. 3, 1925. [przypis autorski]

For an ampler account of this subject, see the writer's article on Complex and Myth in Mother-right, „Psyche”, vol. v. No. 3, Jan., 1925; reprinted in op. cit., Sex and Repression in Savage Society, uniform with this work. [przypis autorski]

For further data referring to the social and legal status of the hereditary magician, see Chap. xvii on „Magic”, in Argonauts of the Western Pacific, as well as the descriptions of and sundry references to canoe magic, sailing magic, and haloma magic. Compare also the short account of garden magic in Primitive Economics („Economic Journ.”, 1921); of war magic, in „Man”, 1920 (No. 5 of article); and of fishing magic, in „Man”, 1918 (No. 53 of article). [przypis autorski]

For instance, the tables of circulation of the valuable axe blades, op. cit. pp. 531, 532. [przypis autorski]

Here again I must refer to some of my other publications, where these matters have been treated in detail, though not from the present point of view. See the three articles published in „Psyche” of October, 1923 (The Psychology of Sex in Primitive Societies); April, 1924 (Psycho-Analysis and Anthropology); and January, 1925 (Complex and Myth in Mother-Right), in which many aspects of sexual psychology, of the fundamental ideas and customs of kinship and relationship, have been described. The two latter articles appear uniform with this work in my Sex and Repression in Savage Society (1926). [przypis autorski]

I am using the words religion and magic according to Sir James Frazer's distinction (see Golden Bough, vol. I). Frazer's definition suits the Kiriwinian facts much better than any other one. In fact, although I started my field work convinced that the theories of religion and magic expounded in the Golden Bough are inadequate, I was forced by all my observations in New Guinea to come over to Frazer's position. [przypis autorski]

I cannot follow Professor Seligman in his use of the word currency, which is not very clearly defined by him. This word can be correctly applied to the armshells, spondylus discs, big polished blades of green stones, etc., only if we give it simply the meaning of „objects” or ”tokens of wealth”. Currency as a rule means a medium of exchange and standard of value, and none of the Massim valuables fulfil these functions. [przypis autorski]

I cannot tell what sort of influence this would be, exercised by a sister over her brother in Dobu. I do not even know whether, in that district, there obtains the same taboo between brother and sister as in the Trobriands. [przypis autorski]

I have dealt with the subject of garden work in the Trobriands and ith its economic importance more fully in an article entitled The Primitive Economics of the Trobriand Islanders in „The Economic Journal”, March, 1921. [przypis autorski]

I have given a more detailed description of this process which I had often opportunities to observe among the Mailu on the South coast. I never saw the making of an armshell in the Trobriands, but the two processes are identical according to detailed information which I obtained. (Compare the monograph on The Natives of Mailu by the Author, in the „Transactions of the Royal Society of S. Australia”, 1915, pp. 643-644. [przypis autorski]

I have not seen the site of Suloga myself. Interesting details are to be found in The Melanesians of Professor Seligman, who visited the spot himself, and who has collected a number of specimens in the locality, as well as many data about the production of the blades. Op. cit., pp. 530-533. [przypis autorski]

I may note at once that there were a few delightful exceptions to that, to mention only my friends Billy Hancock in the Trobriands; M. Raffael Brudo, another pearl trader; and the missionary, Mr. M. K. Gilmour. [przypis autorski]

I spent about a month in these islands, and found the natives surprisingly intractable and difficult to work with ethnographically. The Amphlett „boys” are renowned as boys good boat-hands, but in general they are not such capable and willing workers as the Dobuans. [przypis autorski]

In order not to be guilty of inconsistency in using loosely the word „ceremonial” I shall define it briefly. I shall call an action ceremonial, if it s (1) public; (2) carried on under observance of definite formalities; (3) if it has sociological, religious, or magical import, and carries with it obligations. [przypis autorski]

In this book, besides the adjoining Table, which does not strictly belong to the class of document of which I speak here, the reader will find only a few samples of synoptic tables, such as the list of Kula partners mentioned and analysed in Chapter XIII, Division II, the list of gifts and presents in Chapter VI, Division VI, not tabularised, only described; the synoptic data of a Kula expedition in Chapter XVI, and the table of Kula magic given in Chapter XVII. Here, I have not wanted to overload the account with charts, etc., preferring to reserve them till the full publication of my material. [przypis autorski]

It is hardly necessary perhaps to make it quite clear that all questions of origins, of development or history of the institutions have been rigorously ruled out of this work. The mixing up of speculative or hypothetical views with an account of facts is, in my opinion, an unpardonable sin against ethnographic method. [przypis autorski]

It is necessary to be acquainted with the mythology of canoe-building nd of the Kula (Chapter XII) in order to understand thoroughly the meaning f this spell. [przypis autorski]

It was soon after I had adopted this course that I received a letter from Dr. A. H. Gardiner, the well-known Egyptologist, urging me to do this very hing. From his point of view as archaeologist, he naturally saw the enormous possibilities for an Ethnographer of obtaining a similar body of written sources as have been preserved to us from ancient cultures, plus the possibility of illuminating them by personal knowledge of the full life of that culture. [przypis autorski]

It will be noted, that this is the third meaning in which the term pokala is used by the natives. (Cf. Chapter VI, Division VI.) [przypis autorski]

Mr. Gilmour's statement to the contrary namely that „the trips from the West Kavataria and Kaileuna were pure trading expeditions” (loc. cit.) is incorrect. First, I am inclined to think that some of the Kavataria men did make the Kula in the Amphletts, where they always stopped on their way South, but this might have been only on a very small scale, and entirely overshadowed by the main object of the expedition, which was the trade with the Southern Koya. Secondly, as to the natives of Kayleula, I am certain that they made the Kula, from conclusive data collected both in the Trobriands and in the Amphletts. [przypis autorski]

My knowledge of the Dobuans is fragmentary, derived from three short visits in their district, from conversation with several Dobu natives whom I had in my service, and from frequent parallels and allusions about Dobuan customs, which are met when doing field-work among the Southern Trobrianders. There is a short, sketchy account of certain of their customs and beliefs by the Rev. W. E. Bromilow, first missionary in Dobu, which I have also consulted, in the records of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science. [przypis autorski]

On this point of method again, we are indebted to the Cambridge School of Anthropology for having introduced the really scientific way of dealing with he question. More especially in the writings of Haddon, Rivers and Seligman, he distinction between inference and observation is always clearly drawn, and we can visualise with perfect precision the conditions under which the work was done. [przypis autorski]

Op. cit., description of the Walaga feast, pp. 594-603. [przypis autorski]

Primilivt Society, Chap. on „Justice”, p. 387, English edition. [przypis autorski]

Professor C G. Seligman, op. cit., Chapters XXXV, XXXVI, XXXVII. [przypis autorski]

Professor C. G. Seligman, op. cit., pp. 170 and 171; 187 and 188 about the Koita and Motu; and B. Malinowski, The Mailu, pp. 647–652. [przypis autorski]

Professor C. G. Seligman, op. tit., p. 93, states that arm-shells, toea, as they are called by the Motu, are traded from the Port Moresby district westward to the Gulf of Papua. Among the Motu and Koita, near Port Moresby, they are highly valued, and nowadays attain very high prices, up to £30, much more than is paid for the same article among the Massim. [przypis autorski]

See article by the Author on the Baloma, spirits of the dead in the Trobriand Islands, J. A. I., 1917. [przypis autorski]

See C. G. Seligman, The Melanesians of British New Guinea, Cambridge, 1910. [przypis autorski]

See Table in the Introduction, and also Chapters XVI and XX. [przypis autorski]

See the Author's article, Baloma, Spirits of the Dead, Part VII, J. R. A. I., 1917, where this statement has been substantiated with abundant vidence. Further information obtained during another expedition to the Trobriands, established by an additional wealth of detail the complete ignorance f physiological fatherhood. [przypis autorski]

See the Author's article Baloma, Spirits of the Dead, quoted above. [przypis autorski]

See the Author's Memoir in the „Transactions of the Royal Society of S. Australia”. The Natives of Mailu, pp. 580-588. [przypis autorski]

See the Author's Memoir, The Natives of Mailu in „Transactions of the R. Society of S. Australia” for 1915, p. 598. [przypis autorski]

Steinmetz, Ethnologiscke Studien zur ersten Entwichelung der Strafe, 1894; Durkheim in L'Année Sociologique, i. pp. 353 sqq.; Mauss in Revue de l'Histoire des Religions, 1897. [przypis autorski]

The association of magic with any vital interest is demonstrated by the case of pearling. Here, through the advent of white men, a new and very lucrative and absorbing pursuit has opened up for the natives. A form of magic is now in existence, associated with this fishing. This of course apparently contradicts the native dogma that magic cannot be invented. The natives, if faced with this contradiction, explain that it is really an old magic of shell fishing which refers to all the shells found at the bottom of the Lagoon, but which so far had only been used with regard to fishing for the Conus. In fact, this magic is nothing but the adaptation of the mwali (armshell) magic to the pearls. I doubt, none the less, whether even such a transference or adaptation would have taken place before the foundations of native belief and custom had been shaken by the well-intentioned but not always wise and beneficent teachings and rulings of the white man and by the introduction of trade. [przypis autorski]

The best accounts we possess of the inland tribes are those of W. H. Williamson, The Mafulu, 1912, and of C. Keysser, Aus dem Leben der Kaileute, in R. Neuhauss, Deutsch Neu Guinea, Vol. III. Berlin, 1911. The preliminary publications of G. Landtmann on the Kiwai, Papuan magic n the Building of Houses, „Acta Arboenses”, Humaniora. I. Abo, 1920, and The Folk-Tales of the Kiwai Papuans, Helsmgfors, 1917, promise that he full account will dispel some of the mysteries surrounding the Gulf of Papua. Meanwhile a good semi-popular account of these natives is to be found n W. N. Beaver's Unexplored New Guinea, 1920. Personally I doubt ery much whether the hill tribes and the swamp tribes belong to the same stock or have the same culture. Compare also the most recent contribution to his problem Migrations of Cultures in British New Guinea, by A. C. Haddon, Huxley Memorial Lecture for 1921, published by the R. Anthrop Institute. [przypis autorski]

The crab-claw sails, used on the South Coast, from Mailu where I used o see them, to westwards where they are used with the double-masted lakatoi of Port Moresby, are still more picturesque. In fact, I can hardly imagine anything more strangely impressive than a fleet of crab-claw sailed canoes. They have been depicted in the British New Guinea stamp, as issued by Captain Francis Barton, the late Governor of the Colony. See also Plate XII of Seligman's Melanesians. [przypis autorski]

The discovery of the existence of „linked” totems, and the introduction of this term and conception are due to Professor C. G. Seligman. Op. tit. , pp. 9, 1 1; see also Index. [przypis autorski]

The ethnographic researches at present carried on in Su'a'u by Mr. W. E. Armstrong, of Cambridge, will no doubt throw light on this subject. [przypis autorski]

The hiri, as these expeditions are called in Motuan, have been described with a great wealth of detail and clearness of outline by Captain F. Barton, in C. G. Seligman's The Melanesians of British New Guinea, Cambridge, 1910, Chapter VIII. [przypis autorski]

The legendary „early authority” who found the natives only beastly nd without customs is left behind by a modern writer, who, speaking about he Southern Massim with whom he lived and worked „in close contact” for any years, says „ …We teach lawless men to become obedient, inhuman men to love, and savage men to change”. And again: „Guided in his conduct by nothing but his instincts and propensities, and governed by his unchecked passions…” „Lawless, inhuman and savage!” A grosser misstatement of the real state of things could not be invented by anyone wishing to parody the Missionary point of view. Quoted from the Rev. C. W. Abel, of the London Missionary Society, Savage Life in New Guinea, no date. [przypis autorski]

The natives are ignorant of the fact of physiological fatherhood, and, as I have shown in op. cit., The Father in Primitive Psychology, 1926, have a supernatural theory of the causes of birth. There is no physical continuity between the male and the children of his wife. Yet the father loves his child even from birth — to the extent at least to which the normal European father does. Since this cannot be due to any ideas that they are his offspring, this must be due to the outcome of some innate tendency in the human species, on the part of the male to feel attached to the children born by a woman with whom he is mated, has been living permanently and has kept watch over during her pregnancy. This appears to me the only plausible explanation of the 'voice of blood' which speaks in societies ignorant of fatherhood as well as those that are emphatically patriarchal, which makes a father love his physiologically own child as well as one born through adultery — as long as he does not know of it. The tendency is of the greatest use to the species. [przypis autorski]

The reader will note that this is the same name, which another mythical log bore, also of the Lukuba clan as all dogs are, the one namely from whom he kayga'u magic is traced. Cf. Chapter X, Division V. [przypis autorski]

The relation between Mother-right and Father-love is more fully discussed in op. cit., Sex and Repression in Savage Society. [przypis autorski]

The sorcerer, who stands for conservatism, the old tribal order, the old beliefs and apportionment of power, naturally resents the innovators and the destroyers of his Weltanschauung. He is as a rule the natural enemy of the white man, who therefore hates him. [przypis autorski]

The way of hiring a masawa (sea-going) canoe is different from the usual transaction, when hiring a fishing canoe. In the latter case, the payment consists of giving part of the yield of fish, and this is called uwaga. The same term applies to all payments for objects hired. Thus, if fishing nets or hunting implements, or a small canoe for trading along the coast are hired out, part of the proceeds are given as uwaga. [przypis autorski]

The whole tribal life is based on a continuous material give and take; cf. the above mentioned article in the „Economic Journal”, March, 1921, and he disgression on this subject in Chapter VI, Division IV-VII. [przypis autorski]

The word vineylida suggests the former belief, as vine — female, lida — coral stone. [przypis autorski]

The words within brackets in this and in some of the following spells are free additions, necessary to make the meaning clear in the English version. They are implied by the context in the native original, though not explicitly contained. [przypis autorski]

There can be no better expression to denote the mutual relation of all these ideas than that used by Frazer to describe one of the typical forms of magic thought, the „contagion of ideas”. The subjective, psychological process leads the natives to the belief in magical contagion of things. [przypis autorski]

These views have been elaborated in the previously quoted article on Primitive Economics in the „Economic Journal”, March, 1921. [przypis autorski]

This and the following quotations are from the Author's preliminary article on the Kula in Man, July, 1920. Article number 51, p. 100. [przypis autorski]

This does not mean that the general economic conclusions are wrong. The economic nature of Man is as a rule illustrated on imaginary savages for didactic purposes only, and the conclusions of the authors are in reality based n their study of the facts of developed economics. But, nevertheless, quite apart from the fact that pedagogically it is a wrong principle to make matters look more simple by introducing a falsehood, it is the Ethnographer's duty and right to protest against the introduction from outside of false facts into his own field of study. [przypis autorski]

This is not a fanciful construction of what an erroneous opinion might be, for I could give actual examples proving that such opinions have been set forth, but as I am not giving here a criticism of existing theories of Primitive Economics, I do not want to overload this chapter with quotations. [przypis autorski]

This is the information which I obtained during my short visit to Murua (Woodlark Island), and which was confirmed by the Trobriand islanders. Professor Seligmann states, also, that the sepulchral pots, found in this island, come from the Amphletts. Op. cit., p. 731. Compare also pp. 15 and 535. [przypis autorski]

This view has been more fully elaborated in the article on Primitive Economics in the „Economic Journal”, March, 1921; compare also the remarks on systematic magic in Chapter XVII, Division VII. [przypis autorski]

Thus Rivers speaks of a „group sentiment of the clan system with its accompanying communistic practices”, supposed to exist in Melanesia, and he adds that to such natives the „principle 'each man for himself' is beyond the reach of understanding” (Social Organization, p. 170). Sidney Hartland imagines that in savagery „The same code in the same Divine Name, and with equal authority, may make regulations for the conduct of commercial transactions and of the most intimate conjugal relations, as well as for a complex and splendid ceremonial of divine worship” (Primitive Law, p. 214). Both statements are misleading. Comp. also the quotations in Part I, Sections I and X. [przypis autorski]

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