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16 footnotes found
According to a useful habit of the terminology of science, I use the word Ethnography for the empirical and descriptive results of the science of Man, and the word Ethnology for speculative and comparative theories [przypis autorski]
account of the natives of Mailu in New Guinea — The Natives of Mailu Preliminary Results of the Robert Mond Research Work in British New Guinea. „Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia”, vol. xxxix., 1915. [przypis edytorski]
A constructive expedient to achieve a symmetrical stability is exemplified by the Mailu system of canoe-building, where a platform bndges two parallel, hollowed-out logs. Cf. Author's article in the „Transactions of the Royal Society of S. Australia”, Vol. XXXIX, 1915, pp. 494–706. Chapter IV, 612–599. Plates XXXV-XXXVII. [przypis autorski]
ad libitum (Latin) — literally „at one's pleasure”, in music means „repeat as many times as you want”. [przypis edytorski]
Again, in explaining value, I do not wish to trace its possible origins, but I try simply to show what are the actual and observable elements into which the natives' attitude towards the object valued can be analysed. [przypis redakcyjny]
a limine (Latin) — from the threshold, from the beginning. [przypis edytorski]
All this is discussed at length in Chapter XVII, Division IV. [przypis autorski]
Already Dr. C. G. Seligman has noticed that there are people of an outstanding fine physical type among the Northern Massim, of whom the Trobrianders form the Western section, people who are „generally taller (often very notably so) than the individuals of the short-faced, broad-nosed type, in whom the bridge of the nose is very low”. Op. cit., p. 8. [przypis autorski]
Also in the before quoted article in the „Economic Journal”, March, 1921. [przypis autorski]
An example of this ill-judged attitude of interference is to be found even in a book written by an exceptionally well informed and enlightened missionary, In Far New Guinea, by Henry Newton. In describing the feasts and dancing of the natives, he admits these to be a necessity of tribal life: „On the whole the feasting and dancing are good; they give excitement and relaxation to the young men, and tone the drab colours of life”. He himself tells us that, „the time comes when the old men stop the dancing. They begin to growl because the gardens are neglected, and they want to know if dancing will give the people food, so the order is given that the drums are to be hung up, and the people settle down to work”. But in spite of Mr. Newton's recognition of this natural tribal authority, in spite of the fact that he really admits the views given in our text, he cannot refrain from saying: „Seriously, however, for the benefit of the people themselves, it would be a good thing if there could be some regulations — if dancing were not allowed after midnight, for while it lasts nothing else is done. — The gardens suffer and it would help the people to learn self-restraint and so strengthen their characters if the dancing could be regulated”. He goes on to admit quite candidly that it would be difficult to enforce such a regulation because „to the native mind, it would seem that it was the comfort of the white man, not the benefit of the native which was the reason for the regulation”. And to my mind also, I am afraid! The following quotations from a recent scientific work published by the Oxford Press The Northern d'Entrecasteaux, by D. Jenness, and the Rev. A. Ballantyne, 1920 are also examples of the dangerous and heedless tampering with the one authority that now binds the natives, the one discipline they can be relied upon to observe that of their own tribal tradition. The relations of a church member who died, were „counselled to drop the harsher elements in their mourning”, and instead of the people being bidden „to observe each jot and tittle of their old, time-honoured rites”, they were advised from that day forth to leave off „those which had no meaning”. It is strange to find a trained ethnologist, confessing that old, time-honoured rites have no meaning! And one might feel tempted to ask: for whom it is that these customs have no meaning, for the natives or for the writers of the passage quoted? The following incident is even more telling. A native headman of an inland village was supposed to keep concealed in his hut a magic pot, the „greatest ruler of winds, rain, and sunshine”, a pot which had „come down from times immemorial”, which according to some of the natives „in the beginning simply was”. According to the Authors, the owner of the pot used to descend on the coastal natives and „levy tribute”, threatening them with the magical powers of the pot if they refused. Some of the coastal natives went to the Missionary and asked him to interfere or get the magistrate to do so. It was arranged they should all go with the Missionary and seize the pot. But on the day „only one man turned up”. When the Missionary went, however, the natives blocked his path, and only through threats of punishments by the magistrate, were they induced to temporarily leave the village and thus to allow him to seize the pot! A few days later the Missionary accordingly took possession of the pot, which he broke. The Authors go on to say that after this incident „everyone was contented and happy”; except, one might add, the natives and those who would see in such occurrences the speedy destruction of native culture, and the final disintegration of the race. [przypis autorski]
A number of good portraits of the S. Massim type are to be found in he valuable book ot the Rev. H. Newton, In Far New Guinea, 1914 and in he amusingly written though superficial and often unreliable booklet of the Rev. C. W. Abel (London Missionary Society), Savage Life in New Guinea (No date). [przypis autorski]
Argonauts. See in Index s. v. Kayasa. [przypis autorski]
As a matter of fact, this custom is not so prominent in the Trobnands as in other Massim districts and all over the Papuo-Melanesian world, cf. for instance Seligman, op. cit. p. 56 and Plate VI, Fig. 6. [przypis redakcyjny]
A short article on this subject has been published by the Rev. M. Gilmour, now head of the Methodist Mission in New Guinea. („Annual Report of British New Guinea”, 1904-5, p. 71.) I used this article in the field, going over it with several natives of Kavataria, and I found it substantially correct, and on the whole formulated with precision. The need for extreme compression of statement has, however, led the Author into one or two ambiguities. Thus, the constant mention of „feasting” might give a wrong impression, for it is alwayls the matter of a public distribution of food, which is then eaten apart, or in small groups, while the word „feast” suggests eating in common. Again, the data about the „sea-chief”, as Mr. Gilmour calls the leader of the privileged clan in Kavataria (cf. Chapter IX, Division III), seemed to me over-stated when he is said to be „supreme”, to have „the right of determining an expedition”, and especially when it is said that he „had the right of first choice of a canoe”. This latter phrase must involve a misunderstanding; as we saw, each sub-clan (that is, each sub-division of the village) build their own canoe, and a subsequent swapping and free choice are out of the question. Mr. Gilmour was fully acquainted with the facts of the Kula, as I learnt from personal conversation. In this article, he mentions it only in one phrase, saying that some of the expeditions „were principally concerned in the exchange of the circulated articles of native wealth … in which trade was only a secondary consideration”. [przypis autorski]
At a later date, I hope to work out certain historical hypotheses with regard to migrations and cultural strata in Eastern New Guinea. A considerable number of independent indices seem to corroborate certain simple hypotheses as to the stratification of the various cultural elements. [przypis redakcyjny]