4440 darmowych utworów do których masz prawo



Pierwsza litera: wszystkie | 0-9 | A | B | C | D | E | F | G | H | I | J | K | L | M | N | O | P | Q | R | S | T | U | V | W | X | Y | Z

Według typu: wszystkie | przypisy autorskie | przypisy redaktorów Wolnych Lektur | przypisy redakcji źródła | przypisy tłumacza

Według kwalifikatora: wszystkie

Według języka: wszystkie | English | français | Deutsch | lietuvių | polski

Znaleziono 164 przypisy.

According to a useful habit of the terminology of science, I use the word Ethnography for the empirical and descriptive results of the science of Man, and the word Ethnology for speculative and comparative theories [przypis autorski]

account of the natives of Mailu in New GuineaThe Natives of Mailu Preliminary Results of the Robert Mond Research Work in British New Guinea. „Transactions of the Royal Society of South Australia”, vol. xxxix., 1915. [przypis edytorski]

A constructive expedient to achieve a symmetrical stability is exemplified by the Mailu system of canoe-building, where a platform bndges two parallel, hollowed-out logs. Cf. Author's article in the „Transactions of the Royal Society of S. Australia”, Vol. XXXIX, 1915, pp. 494–706. Chapter IV, 612–599. Plates XXXV-XXXVII. [przypis autorski]

ad libitum (Latin) — literally „at one's pleasure”, in music means „repeat as many times as you want”. [przypis edytorski]

Again, in explaining value, I do not wish to trace its possible origins, but I try simply to show what are the actual and observable elements into which the natives' attitude towards the object valued can be analysed. [przypis redakcyjny]

a limine (Latin) — from the threshold, from the beginning. [przypis edytorski]

All this is discussed at length in Chapter XVII, Division IV. [przypis autorski]

Already Dr. C. G. Seligman has noticed that there are people of an outstanding fine physical type among the Northern Massim, of whom the Trobrianders form the Western section, people who are „generally taller (often very notably so) than the individuals of the short-faced, broad-nosed type, in whom the bridge of the nose is very low”. Op. cit., p. 8. [przypis autorski]

Also in the before quoted article in the „Economic Journal”, March, 1921. [przypis autorski]

An example of this ill-judged attitude of interference is to be found even in a book written by an exceptionally well informed and enlightened missionary, In Far New Guinea, by Henry Newton. In describing the feasts and dancing of the natives, he admits these to be a necessity of tribal life: „On the whole the feasting and dancing are good; they give excitement and relaxation to the young men, and tone the drab colours of life”. He himself tells us that, „the time comes when the old men stop the dancing. They begin to growl because the gardens are neglected, and they want to know if dancing will give the people food, so the order is given that the drums are to be hung up, and the people settle down to work”. But in spite of Mr. Newton's recognition of this natural tribal authority, in spite of the fact that he really admits the views given in our text, he cannot refrain from saying: „Seriously, however, for the benefit of the people themselves, it would be a good thing if there could be some regulations — if dancing were not allowed after midnight, for while it lasts nothing else is done. — The gardens suffer and it would help the people to learn self-restraint and so strengthen their characters if the dancing could be regulated”. He goes on to admit quite candidly that it would be difficult to enforce such a regulation because „to the native mind, it would seem that it was the comfort of the white man, not the benefit of the native which was the reason for the regulation”. And to my mind also, I am afraid! The following quotations from a recent scientific work published by the Oxford Press The Northern d'Entrecasteaux, by D. Jenness, and the Rev. A. Ballantyne, 1920 are also examples of the dangerous and heedless tampering with the one authority that now binds the natives, the one discipline they can be relied upon to observe that of their own tribal tradition. The relations of a church member who died, were „counselled to drop the harsher elements in their mourning”, and instead of the people being bidden „to observe each jot and tittle of their old, time-honoured rites”, they were advised from that day forth to leave off „those which had no meaning”. It is strange to find a trained ethnologist, confessing that old, time-honoured rites have no meaning! And one might feel tempted to ask: for whom it is that these customs have no meaning, for the natives or for the writers of the passage quoted? The following incident is even more telling. A native headman of an inland village was supposed to keep concealed in his hut a magic pot, the „greatest ruler of winds, rain, and sunshine”, a pot which had „come down from times immemorial”, which according to some of the natives „in the beginning simply was”. According to the Authors, the owner of the pot used to descend on the coastal natives and „levy tribute”, threatening them with the magical powers of the pot if they refused. Some of the coastal natives went to the Missionary and asked him to interfere or get the magistrate to do so. It was arranged they should all go with the Missionary and seize the pot. But on the day „only one man turned up”. When the Missionary went, however, the natives blocked his path, and only through threats of punishments by the magistrate, were they induced to temporarily leave the village and thus to allow him to seize the pot! A few days later the Missionary accordingly took possession of the pot, which he broke. The Authors go on to say that after this incident „everyone was contented and happy”; except, one might add, the natives and those who would see in such occurrences the speedy destruction of native culture, and the final disintegration of the race. [przypis autorski]

A number of good portraits of the S. Massim type are to be found in he valuable book ot the Rev. H. Newton, In Far New Guinea, 1914 and in he amusingly written though superficial and often unreliable booklet of the Rev. C. W. Abel (London Missionary Society), Savage Life in New Guinea (No date). [przypis autorski]

As a matter of fact, this custom is not so prominent in the Trobnands as in other Massim districts and all over the Papuo-Melanesian world, cf. for instance Seligman, op. cit. p. 56 and Plate VI, Fig. 6. [przypis redakcyjny]

A short article on this subject has been published by the Rev. M. Gilmour, now head of the Methodist Mission in New Guinea. („Annual Report of British New Guinea”, 1904-5, p. 71.) I used this article in the field, going over it with several natives of Kavataria, and I found it substantially correct, and on the whole formulated with precision. The need for extreme compression of statement has, however, led the Author into one or two ambiguities. Thus, the constant mention of „feasting” might give a wrong impression, for it is alwayls the matter of a public distribution of food, which is then eaten apart, or in small groups, while the word „feast” suggests eating in common. Again, the data about the „sea-chief”, as Mr. Gilmour calls the leader of the privileged clan in Kavataria (cf. Chapter IX, Division III), seemed to me over-stated when he is said to be „supreme”, to have „the right of determining an expedition”, and especially when it is said that he „had the right of first choice of a canoe”. This latter phrase must involve a misunderstanding; as we saw, each sub-clan (that is, each sub-division of the village) build their own canoe, and a subsequent swapping and free choice are out of the question. Mr. Gilmour was fully acquainted with the facts of the Kula, as I learnt from personal conversation. In this article, he mentions it only in one phrase, saying that some of the expeditions „were principally concerned in the exchange of the circulated articles of native wealth … in which trade was only a secondary consideration”. [przypis autorski]

At a later date, I hope to work out certain historical hypotheses with regard to migrations and cultural strata in Eastern New Guinea. A considerable number of independent indices seem to corroborate certain simple hypotheses as to the stratification of the various cultural elements. [przypis redakcyjny]

A tourist guide in Italy (pronounced: cheecherony).

Both statements of Professor Seligman in the Melanesians (p. 89) are in entire agreement with the information I obtained among the Mailu. See „Transactions of the Royal Society of S. Australia”, 1915, pp. 620-629, [przypis autorski]

By „current view”, I mean such as is to be found in text-books and n passing remarks, scattered through economic and ethnological literature. As a matter of fact, Economics is a subject very seldom touched upon either in theoretical works on Ethnology, or in accounts of field-work. I have enlarged n this deficiency in the article on Primitive Economics, published in the „Economic Journal”, March, 1921. The best analysis of the problem of savage economy is to be found, in spite of its many shortcomings, in K. Bűcher's Industrial Evolution, English Translation, 1901. On primitive trade, however, his views are inadequate. In accordance with his general view that savages have no national economy, he maintains that any spread of goods among natives is achieved by non-economic means, such as robbery, tributes and gifts. The information contained in the present volume is incompatible with Bucher's views, nor could he have maintained them, had he been acquainted with Barton's description of the Hiri (contained in Seligman's Melanesians.) A summary of the research done on Primitive Economics, showing ncidentally, how little real, sound work has been accomplished, will be found in Pater W. Kopper's Die Ethnologische Wirtschaftsforschung in „Anthropos”, X XI, 1915–16, pp. 611–651, and 971–1079. The article is very useful, here the author summarises the views of others. [przypis autorski]

Cf. Chapter II, Divisions III and IV, and some of the following Divisions of this Chapter. [przypis redakcyjny]

Cf. Professor C. G. Seligman, Chapters XXXVII and XXXVIII. [przypis autorski]

Cf. Professor C. G. Seligman, op. cit., Chapters XL and XLII. [przypis autorski]

Cf. Professor C. G. Seligman. Op. cit, Chapter XLIV. [przypis autorski]

Cf. Professor C. G. Seligman. Op. cit., p. 584. [przypis autorski]

Cf. Professor C. G. Seligman, The Melanesians, Chapter LIV, Burial and Mourning Ceremonies (among the natives of the Trobriand Islands, of Woodlark and the Marshall Bennetts). [przypis autorski]

Cf. The Father in Primitive Psychology (1926), originally published in „Psyche”, vol. iv, No. 2. [przypis autorski]

Cf. The Mailu, by B. Malinowski, in „Transactions of the R. Society f S. Australia”, 1915; Chapter iv. 4, pp. 612 to 629. [przypis autorski]

Cf. the writer's op. cit. Argonauts of the Western Pacific. [przypis autorski]

Charon — a figure from Greek mythology who ferried the souls of the dead to the underworld.

Compare also No. VI (A), in the Synoptic Table of Kula magic, in Chapter XVII, p. 418. [przypis autorski]

Compare also the apposite criticism of my expression „pure gift” and of all it implies by M. Marcel Mauss, in L'Année Sociologique. Nouvelle Série. vol. i, pp. 171 sqq. I had written the above paragraph before I saw M. Mauss's strictures, which substantially agreed with my own. It is gratifying to a field-worker when his observations are sufficiently well presented to allow others to refute his conclusions out of his own material. It is even more pleasant for me to find that my maturer judgment has led me independently to the same results as those of my distinguished friend M. Mauss. [przypis autorski]

Compare Plate XXXIII, where the yam houses of a headman arc filled by his wife's brothers. [przypis redakcyjny]

Compare Professor C. G. Seligman, op. cit., pp. 663–668; also the Author, Article on War and Weapons among the Trobriand Islanders, in Man, January, 1918. [przypis autorski]

Compare Professor C. G. Seligman, op. cit., the parallel description of he social institutions in the Trobriands, Marshall Bennetts, Woodlark Island nd the Loughlands, Chapters XLIX–LV. [przypis autorski]

Compare the article on 'Baloma' in the „Journal of the Royal Anlhrop. Inst.”, 1916, where I describe the beliefs in the two surviving principles in detail, without mentioning that the kousi is found exclusively in the case of a sorcerer. This I found out during my third expedition to New Guinea. [przypis autorski]

Compare the Author's article on Fishing and Fishing Magic in the Trobriands, Man, June, 1918. [przypis autorski]

Compare the linguistic analysis of the original text of this spell, given in Chapter XVIII. [przypis redakcyjny]

Compare the linguistic analysis of this spell in Chapter XVIII. [przypis autorski]

Compare therefore Chapter XII, Division IV. [przypis autorski]

Comparing the frail yet clumsy native canoe with a fine European yacht, we feel inclined to regard the former almost in the light of a joke. This is the pervading note in many amateur ethnographic accounts of sailing, here cheap fun is made by speaking of roughly hewn dug-outs in terms of „dreadnoughts” or „Royal Yachts”, just as simple, savage chiefs are referred o as „Kings” in a jocular vein. Such humour is doubtless natural and refreshing, but when we approach these matters scientifically, on the one hand we must refrain from any distortion of facts, and on the other, enter into the finer shades of the natives' thought and feeling with regard to his own creations. [przypis autorski]

Comp. D. Jenness and A. Ballantyne, The Northern d'Entrecasteaux, Oxford, 1920, Chapter XII. [przypis autorski]

Comp. for more detail, the various aspects of chieftainship I have brought out in art. cit. Primitive Economics, op. cit. (Argonauts), and the articles on „War” and on „Spirits”, also referred to previously. [przypis autorski]

Comp. the account of this institution in Argonauts of the Western Pacific (references in Index s. v. Gwara). Also descriptions in Prof. Seligman's Melanesians, and in the present writer's The Natives of Mailu („Trans. R. Soc. of S. Australia”, vol. 39), of the gola or gora among the Western Papuo-Melanesians. [przypis autorski]

Comp. the writer's account of the Milamala, the feast of the annual return of the spirits, in Baloma; the spirits of the dead in the Trobriand Islands („Journ. of the R. Anthrop. Institute”, 1916). The food offerings in question are described on p. 378. [przypis autorski]

corpus iuris — (Latin) the body of laws. [przypis edytorski]

couvade — a practice in which the husband of a woman bearing a child lies in his bed and reenacts the birth. [przypis edytorski]

Diana — Roman goddess of the moon, the hunt, and chastity; her Greek counterpart is Artemis.

Die Symmetric von Handlungen aber nennen wir das Prinzip der Vergeltung. Dieses liegt tief verwurzelt im menschlicfaen Empfinden — als adaquate Reaktion — und ihm kam von jeher die grösste Bedeutung im sozialen Leben zu (Die Gemeinde der Bánaro, Stuttgart, 1921, p. 10). [przypis autorski]

eo ipso (Latin) — by that very act. [przypis edytorski]

For an account and analysis of abuse and obscene expressions, cf. op. cit., Sex and Repression in Savage Society or the writer's article in „Psyche”, v. 3, 1925. [przypis autorski]

For an ampler account of this subject, see the writer's article on Complex and Myth in Mother-right, „Psyche”, vol. v. No. 3, Jan., 1925; reprinted in op. cit., Sex and Repression in Savage Society, uniform with this work. [przypis autorski]

For further data referring to the social and legal status of the hereditary magician, see Chap. xvii on „Magic”, in Argonauts of the Western Pacific, as well as the descriptions of and sundry references to canoe magic, sailing magic, and haloma magic. Compare also the short account of garden magic in Primitive Economics („Economic Journ.”, 1921); of war magic, in „Man”, 1920 (No. 5 of article); and of fishing magic, in „Man”, 1918 (No. 53 of article). [przypis autorski]

For instance, the tables of circulation of the valuable axe blades, op. cit. pp. 531, 532. [przypis autorski]

Heraclitus of Ephesus (c. 535–475 BC) — pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, often called „weeping Heraclitus”.

Here again I must refer to some of my other publications, where these matters have been treated in detail, though not from the present point of view. See the three articles published in „Psyche” of October, 1923 (The Psychology of Sex in Primitive Societies); April, 1924 (Psycho-Analysis and Anthropology); and January, 1925 (Complex and Myth in Mother-Right), in which many aspects of sexual psychology, of the fundamental ideas and customs of kinship and relationship, have been described. The two latter articles appear uniform with this work in my Sex and Repression in Savage Society (1926). [przypis autorski]

I am adducing these views not for any controversial purposes, but to justify and make clear why I stress certain general features of Trobriand Economic Sociology. My contentions might run the danger of appearing as gratuitous truisms if not thus justified. The opinion that primitive humanity and savages have no individual property is an old prejudice shared by many modern writers, especially in support of communistic theories, and the so-called materialistic view of history. The „communism of savages” is a phrase very often read, and needs no special quotation. The views of individual search for food and household economy are those of Karl Bűcher, and they have directly influenced all the best modern writings on Primitive Economics. Finally, the view that we have done with Primitive Economics if we have described the way in which the natives procure their food, is obviously a fundamental premise of all the naīve, evolutionary theories which construct the successive stages of economic development. This view is summarised in the following sentence : „…In many simple communities, the actual food quest, and operations immediately arising from it, occupy by far the greater part of the people's time and energy, leaving little opportunity for the satisfaction of any lesser needs”. This sentence, quoted out of „Notes and Queries on Anthropology”, p. 160, article on the Economics of the Social Group, represents what may be called the official view of contemporary Ethnology on the subject, and in perusing the rest of the article, it can be easily seen that all the manifold economic problems, with which we are dealing in this book, have been so far more or less neglected. [przypis redakcyjny]

I am using the words religion and magic according to Sir James Frazer's distinction (see Golden Bough, vol. I). Frazer's definition suits the Kiriwinian facts much better than any other one. In fact, although I started my field work convinced that the theories of religion and magic expounded in the Golden Bough are inadequate, I was forced by all my observations in New Guinea to come over to Frazer's position. [przypis autorski]

I cannot follow Professor Seligman in his use of the word currency, which is not very clearly defined by him. This word can be correctly applied to the armshells, spondylus discs, big polished blades of green stones, etc., only if we give it simply the meaning of „objects” or ”tokens of wealth”. Currency as a rule means a medium of exchange and standard of value, and none of the Massim valuables fulfil these functions. [przypis autorski]

I cannot tell what sort of influence this would be, exercised by a sister over her brother in Dobu. I do not even know whether, in that district, there obtains the same taboo between brother and sister as in the Trobriands. [przypis autorski]

I have dealt with the subject of garden work in the Trobriands and ith its economic importance more fully in an article entitled The Primitive Economics of the Trobriand Islanders in „The Economic Journal”, March, 1921. [przypis autorski]

I have given a more detailed description of this process which I had often opportunities to observe among the Mailu on the South coast. I never saw the making of an armshell in the Trobriands, but the two processes are identical according to detailed information which I obtained. (Compare the monograph on The Natives of Mailu by the Author, in the „Transactions of the Royal Society of S. Australia”, 1915, pp. 643-644. [przypis autorski]

I have not seen the site of Suloga myself. Interesting details are to be found in The Melanesians of Professor Seligman, who visited the spot himself, and who has collected a number of specimens in the locality, as well as many data about the production of the blades. Op. cit., pp. 530-533. [przypis autorski]

I may note at once that there were a few delightful exceptions to that, to mention only my friends Billy Hancock in the Trobriands; M. Raffael Brudo, another pearl trader; and the missionary, Mr. M. K. Gilmour. [przypis autorski]

in flagranti — (Latin) while commiting the act. [przypis edytorski]

In order not to be guilty of inconsistency in using loosely the word „ceremonial” I shall define it briefly. I shall call an action ceremonial, if it s (1) public; (2) carried on under observance of definite formalities; (3) if it has sociological, religious, or magical import, and carries with it obligations. [przypis autorski]

In this book, besides the adjoining Table, which does not strictly belong to the class of document of which I speak here, the reader will find only a few samples of synoptic tables, such as the list of Kula partners mentioned and analysed in Chapter XIII, Division II, the list of gifts and presents in Chapter VI, Division VI, not tabularised, only described; the synoptic data of a Kula expedition in Chapter XVI, and the table of Kula magic given in Chapter XVII. Here, I have not wanted to overload the account with charts, etc., preferring to reserve them till the full publication of my material. [przypis autorski]

ipso facto (Latin) — by the very same act. [przypis edytorski]

I spent about a month in these islands, and found the natives surprisingly intractable and difficult to work with ethnographically. The Amphlett „boys” are renowned as boys good boat-hands, but in general they are not such capable and willing workers as the Dobuans. [przypis autorski]

It is hardly necessary perhaps to make it quite clear that all questions of origins, of development or history of the institutions have been rigorously ruled out of this work. The mixing up of speculative or hypothetical views with an account of facts is, in my opinion, an unpardonable sin against ethnographic method. [przypis autorski]

It is necessary to be acquainted with the mythology of canoe-building nd of the Kula (Chapter XII) in order to understand thoroughly the meaning f this spell. [przypis autorski]

It was soon after I had adopted this course that I received a letter from Dr. A. H. Gardiner, the well-known Egyptologist, urging me to do this very hing. From his point of view as archaeologist, he naturally saw the enormous possibilities for an Ethnographer of obtaining a similar body of written sources as have been preserved to us from ancient cultures, plus the possibility of illuminating them by personal knowledge of the full life of that culture. [przypis autorski]

It will be noted, that this is the third meaning in which the term pokala is used by the natives. (Cf. Chapter VI, Division VI.) [przypis autorski]

Koyatabu — the mountain on the North shore of Fergusson, Kamsareta, the highest hill on Domdom, in the Amphletts; Koyava'u — the mountain opposite Dobu island, on the North shore of Dawson Straits; Gorebubu — the volcano on Dobu island. [przypis redakcyjny]

Marcus Junius Brutus (85 BC–42 BC) — Roman polititian, one of the assassinators of Julius Caesar, committed suicide after losing battle of Philippi.

moiety — one of a portion into which something is divided, usually a half or near half. [przypis edytorski]

Mr. Gilmour's statement to the contrary namely that „the trips from the West Kavataria and Kaileuna were pure trading expeditions” (loc. cit.) is incorrect. First, I am inclined to think that some of the Kavataria men did make the Kula in the Amphletts, where they always stopped on their way South, but this might have been only on a very small scale, and entirely overshadowed by the main object of the expedition, which was the trade with the Southern Koya. Secondly, as to the natives of Kayleula, I am certain that they made the Kula, from conclusive data collected both in the Trobriands and in the Amphletts. [przypis autorski]

mutatis mutandis (Latin) — changing what has to be changed. [przypis edytorski]

mutatis mutandis (Latin) — changing what must be changed. [przypis edytorski]

My knowledge of the Dobuans is fragmentary, derived from three short visits in their district, from conversation with several Dobu natives whom I had in my service, and from frequent parallels and allusions about Dobuan customs, which are met when doing field-work among the Southern Trobrianders. There is a short, sketchy account of certain of their customs and beliefs by the Rev. W. E. Bromilow, first missionary in Dobu, which I have also consulted, in the records of the Australasian Association for the Advancement of Science. [przypis autorski]

Niobe — a figure from Greek mythology, daughter of Tantalus, turned into stone by grief after death of her 14 children, inflicted by Olympic gods.

Not all the spells which I have obtained have been equally well translated and commented upon. This one, although very valuable, for it is one of the spells of the old chief Maniyuwa, and one which had been recited when his corpse was brought over from Dobu by his son Maradiana, was obtained early in my ethnographic career, and Gomaya, Maradiana's son, from whom I got it, is a bad commentator. Nor could I find any other competent informant later on, who could completely elucidate it for me. [przypis redakcyjny]

On this point of method again, we are indebted to the Cambridge School of Anthropology for having introduced the really scientific way of dealing with he question. More especially in the writings of Haddon, Rivers and Seligman, he distinction between inference and observation is always clearly drawn, and we can visualise with perfect precision the conditions under which the work was done. [przypis autorski]

Op. cit., description of the Walaga feast, pp. 594-603. [przypis autorski]

opprobrium (from Latin) — shame, disgrace. [przypis edytorski]

Orpheus — legendary Greek singer and poet; in the mythic tale he went to the underworld, trying to charm Hades with his music in order to retrieve his dead wife, Euridice.

Persephone — Greek goddes of vegetation, daughter of Demeter and Zeus, abducted by Hades, god of underworld; her Roman counterpart is Proserpine.

phratry — subdivision of a tribe; marriages within it are usually prohibited. [przypis edytorski]

Pluto — Roman god of the underworld, equivalent of Greek god Hades.

prima facie (Latin) — at first sight. [przypis edytorski]

Primilivt Society, Chap. on „Justice”, p. 387, English edition. [przypis autorski]

primus inter pares (Latin) — the first among the equals. [przypis edytorski]

Professor C G. Seligman, op. cit., Chapters XXXV, XXXVI, XXXVII. [przypis autorski]


* Ładowanie