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18 footnotes found

I am adducing these views not for any controversial purposes, but to justify and make clear why I stress certain general features of Trobriand Economic Sociology. My contentions might run the danger of appearing as gratuitous truisms if not thus justified. The opinion that primitive humanity and savages have no individual property is an old prejudice shared by many modern writers, especially in support of communistic theories, and the so-called materialistic view of history. The „communism of savages” is a phrase very often read, and needs no special quotation. The views of individual search for food and household economy are those of Karl Bűcher, and they have directly influenced all the best modern writings on Primitive Economics. Finally, the view that we have done with Primitive Economics if we have described the way in which the natives procure their food, is obviously a fundamental premise of all the naīve, evolutionary theories which construct the successive stages of economic development. This view is summarised in the following sentence : „…In many simple communities, the actual food quest, and operations immediately arising from it, occupy by far the greater part of the people's time and energy, leaving little opportunity for the satisfaction of any lesser needs”. This sentence, quoted out of „Notes and Queries on Anthropology”, p. 160, article on the Economics of the Social Group, represents what may be called the official view of contemporary Ethnology on the subject, and in perusing the rest of the article, it can be easily seen that all the manifold economic problems, with which we are dealing in this book, have been so far more or less neglected. [przypis redakcyjny]

I am using the words religion and magic according to Sir James Frazer's distinction (see Golden Bough, vol. I). Frazer's definition suits the Kiriwinian facts much better than any other one. In fact, although I started my field work convinced that the theories of religion and magic expounded in the Golden Bough are inadequate, I was forced by all my observations in New Guinea to come over to Frazer's position. [przypis autorski]

I cannot follow Professor Seligman in his use of the word currency, which is not very clearly defined by him. This word can be correctly applied to the armshells, spondylus discs, big polished blades of green stones, etc., only if we give it simply the meaning of „objects” or ”tokens of wealth”. Currency as a rule means a medium of exchange and standard of value, and none of the Massim valuables fulfil these functions. [przypis autorski]

I cannot tell what sort of influence this would be, exercised by a sister over her brother in Dobu. I do not even know whether, in that district, there obtains the same taboo between brother and sister as in the Trobriands. [przypis autorski]

I have dealt with the subject of garden work in the Trobriands and ith its economic importance more fully in an article entitled The Primitive Economics of the Trobriand Islanders in „The Economic Journal”, March, 1921. [przypis autorski]

I have given a more detailed description of this process which I had often opportunities to observe among the Mailu on the South coast. I never saw the making of an armshell in the Trobriands, but the two processes are identical according to detailed information which I obtained. (Compare the monograph on The Natives of Mailu by the Author, in the „Transactions of the Royal Society of S. Australia”, 1915, pp. 643-644. [przypis autorski]

I have not seen the site of Suloga myself. Interesting details are to be found in The Melanesians of Professor Seligman, who visited the spot himself, and who has collected a number of specimens in the locality, as well as many data about the production of the blades. Op. cit., pp. 530-533. [przypis autorski]

I may note at once that there were a few delightful exceptions to that, to mention only my friends Billy Hancock in the Trobriands; M. Raffael Brudo, another pearl trader; and the missionary, Mr. M. K. Gilmour. [przypis autorski]

I spent about a month in these islands, and found the natives surprisingly intractable and difficult to work with ethnographically. The Amphlett „boys” are renowned as boys good boat-hands, but in general they are not such capable and willing workers as the Dobuans. [przypis autorski]

in flagranti — (Latin) while commiting the act. [przypis edytorski]

In order not to be guilty of inconsistency in using loosely the word „ceremonial” I shall define it briefly. I shall call an action ceremonial, if it s (1) public; (2) carried on under observance of definite formalities; (3) if it has sociological, religious, or magical import, and carries with it obligations. [przypis autorski]

In this book, besides the adjoining Table, which does not strictly belong to the class of document of which I speak here, the reader will find only a few samples of synoptic tables, such as the list of Kula partners mentioned and analysed in Chapter XIII, Division II, the list of gifts and presents in Chapter VI, Division VI, not tabularised, only described; the synoptic data of a Kula expedition in Chapter XVI, and the table of Kula magic given in Chapter XVII. Here, I have not wanted to overload the account with charts, etc., preferring to reserve them till the full publication of my material. [przypis autorski]

ipso facto (Latin) — by the very same act. [przypis edytorski]

It is hardly necessary perhaps to make it quite clear that all questions of origins, of development or history of the institutions have been rigorously ruled out of this work. The mixing up of speculative or hypothetical views with an account of facts is, in my opinion, an unpardonable sin against ethnographic method. [przypis autorski]

It is necessary to be acquainted with the mythology of canoe-building nd of the Kula (Chapter XII) in order to understand thoroughly the meaning f this spell. [przypis autorski]

It was soon after I had adopted this course that I received a letter from Dr. A. H. Gardiner, the well-known Egyptologist, urging me to do this very hing. From his point of view as archaeologist, he naturally saw the enormous possibilities for an Ethnographer of obtaining a similar body of written sources as have been preserved to us from ancient cultures, plus the possibility of illuminating them by personal knowledge of the full life of that culture. [przypis autorski]

It will be noted, that this is the third meaning in which the term pokala is used by the natives. (Cf. Chapter VI, Division VI.) [przypis autorski]


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