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Professor C. G. Seligman, op. cit., pp. 170 and 171; 187 and 188 about the Koita and Motu; and B. Malinowski, The Mailu, pp. 647–652. [przypis autorski]

Professor C. G. Seligman, op. tit., p. 93, states that arm-shells, toea, as they are called by the Motu, are traded from the Port Moresby district westward to the Gulf of Papua. Among the Motu and Koita, near Port Moresby, they are highly valued, and nowadays attain very high prices, up to £30, much more than is paid for the same article among the Massim. [przypis autorski]

Professor Seligman has described the belief in similar beings on the North-East Coast of New Guinea. At Gelaria, inland of Bartle Bay, the flying witches can produce a double, or „sending”, which they call labuni. „Labuni exists within women, and can be commanded by any woman who has had children. … It was said that the labuni existed in, or was derived from, an organ called ipona, situated in the flank, and literally meaning egg or eggs”. op. cit., p. 640. The equivalence of beliefs here is evident. [przypis redakcyjny]

Proserpine — Roman goddess of spring, spending winter in the underworld as a wife of Pluto; equivalent of Greek Persephone. [przypis edytorski]

Sappho (c. 612 BC–c. 570 BC) — a female Greek lyric poet. [przypis edytorski]

See article by the Author on the Baloma, spirits of the dead in the Trobriand Islands, J. A. I., 1917. [przypis autorski]

See C. G. Seligman, The Melanesians of British New Guinea, Cambridge, 1910. [przypis autorski]

See Table in the Introduction, and also Chapters XVI and XX. [przypis autorski]

See the Author's article, Baloma, Spirits of the Dead, Part VII, J. R. A. I., 1917, where this statement has been substantiated with abundant vidence. Further information obtained during another expedition to the Trobriands, established by an additional wealth of detail the complete ignorance f physiological fatherhood. [przypis autorski]

See the Author's article Baloma, Spirits of the Dead, quoted above. [przypis autorski]

See the Author's Memoir in the „Transactions of the Royal Society of S. Australia”. The Natives of Mailu, pp. 580-588. [przypis autorski]

See the Author's Memoir, The Natives of Mailu in „Transactions of the R. Society of S. Australia” for 1915, p. 598. [przypis autorski]

Simonides of Ceos (c. 556–468 BC) — a Greek lyric poet, renowned for his epitaphs. [przypis edytorski]

Sipylus — a mountain often mentioned in Greek mythology, presently Mount Spil in Turkey. [przypis edytorski]

status quo (Latin) — the current state of affairs. [przypis edytorski]

Steinmetz, Ethnologiscke Studien zur ersten Entwichelung der Strafe, 1894; Durkheim in L'Année Sociologique, i. pp. 353 sqq.; Mauss in Revue de l'Histoire des Religions, 1897. [przypis autorski]

Such reconstructions are legitimate for an Ethnographer, as well as for a historian. But it is a duty of the former as well as of the latter to show his sources as well as to explain how he has manipulated them. In one of the next chapters, Chapter XVIII, Divisions XIV-XVII, a sample of this methodological aspect of the work will be given, although the full elaboration of sources and methods must be postponed to another publication. [przypis redakcyjny]

Tales sunt… terras (Latin) — human minds are the reflections of light casted on fertile earth by father Jupiter (fragment of Homer's Odyssey translated by Cicero and passed on by St. Augustine in De civitate Dei). [przypis edytorski]

talion — (Latin) punishment compensating a crime by being its equivalent. [przypis edytorski]

termini technici (Latin) — technical terms. [przypis edytorski]

The association of magic with any vital interest is demonstrated by the case of pearling. Here, through the advent of white men, a new and very lucrative and absorbing pursuit has opened up for the natives. A form of magic is now in existence, associated with this fishing. This of course apparently contradicts the native dogma that magic cannot be invented. The natives, if faced with this contradiction, explain that it is really an old magic of shell fishing which refers to all the shells found at the bottom of the Lagoon, but which so far had only been used with regard to fishing for the Conus. In fact, this magic is nothing but the adaptation of the mwali (armshell) magic to the pearls. I doubt, none the less, whether even such a transference or adaptation would have taken place before the foundations of native belief and custom had been shaken by the well-intentioned but not always wise and beneficent teachings and rulings of the white man and by the introduction of trade. [przypis autorski]

The best accounts we possess of the inland tribes are those of W. H. Williamson, The Mafulu, 1912, and of C. Keysser, Aus dem Leben der Kaileute, in R. Neuhauss, Deutsch Neu Guinea, Vol. III. Berlin, 1911. The preliminary publications of G. Landtmann on the Kiwai, Papuan magic n the Building of Houses, „Acta Arboenses”, Humaniora. I. Abo, 1920, and The Folk-Tales of the Kiwai Papuans, Helsmgfors, 1917, promise that he full account will dispel some of the mysteries surrounding the Gulf of Papua. Meanwhile a good semi-popular account of these natives is to be found n W. N. Beaver's Unexplored New Guinea, 1920. Personally I doubt ery much whether the hill tribes and the swamp tribes belong to the same stock or have the same culture. Compare also the most recent contribution to his problem Migrations of Cultures in British New Guinea, by A. C. Haddon, Huxley Memorial Lecture for 1921, published by the R. Anthrop Institute. [przypis autorski]

The crab-claw sails, used on the South Coast, from Mailu where I used o see them, to westwards where they are used with the double-masted lakatoi of Port Moresby, are still more picturesque. In fact, I can hardly imagine anything more strangely impressive than a fleet of crab-claw sailed canoes. They have been depicted in the British New Guinea stamp, as issued by Captain Francis Barton, the late Governor of the Colony. See also Plate XII of Seligman's Melanesians. [przypis autorski]

The discovery of the existence of „linked” totems, and the introduction of this term and conception are due to Professor C. G. Seligman. Op. tit. , pp. 9, 1 1; see also Index. [przypis autorski]

The ethnographic researches at present carried on in Su'a'u by Mr. W. E. Armstrong, of Cambridge, will no doubt throw light on this subject. [przypis autorski]

The great moral philosopher — Immanuel Kant. [przypis edytorski]

The hiri, as these expeditions are called in Motuan, have been described with a great wealth of detail and clearness of outline by Captain F. Barton, in C. G. Seligman's The Melanesians of British New Guinea, Cambridge, 1910, Chapter VIII. [przypis autorski]

The legendary „early authority” who found the natives only beastly nd without customs is left behind by a modern writer, who, speaking about he Southern Massim with whom he lived and worked „in close contact” for any years, says „ …We teach lawless men to become obedient, inhuman men to love, and savage men to change”. And again: „Guided in his conduct by nothing but his instincts and propensities, and governed by his unchecked passions…” „Lawless, inhuman and savage!” A grosser misstatement of the real state of things could not be invented by anyone wishing to parody the Missionary point of view. Quoted from the Rev. C. W. Abel, of the London Missionary Society, Savage Life in New Guinea, no date. [przypis autorski]

The natives are ignorant of the fact of physiological fatherhood, and, as I have shown in op. cit., The Father in Primitive Psychology, 1926, have a supernatural theory of the causes of birth. There is no physical continuity between the male and the children of his wife. Yet the father loves his child even from birth — to the extent at least to which the normal European father does. Since this cannot be due to any ideas that they are his offspring, this must be due to the outcome of some innate tendency in the human species, on the part of the male to feel attached to the children born by a woman with whom he is mated, has been living permanently and has kept watch over during her pregnancy. This appears to me the only plausible explanation of the 'voice of blood' which speaks in societies ignorant of fatherhood as well as those that are emphatically patriarchal, which makes a father love his physiologically own child as well as one born through adultery — as long as he does not know of it. The tendency is of the greatest use to the species. [przypis autorski]

The original has: „I tak być musi, choć się tak nie stanie/Przyjaźni mojéj”. The relation of the „friendship” to the rest of the stanza is equally unclear as in this my rendering of it. [przypis redakcyjny]

The prefix bo- has three different etymological derivations, each carrying its own shade of meaning. First, it may be the first part of the word bomala, in which case, its meaning will be „ritual” or „sacred”. Secondly, it may be derived from the word bu'a, areca-nut, a substance very often used and mentioned in magic, both because it is a narcotic, and a beautiful, vermilion dye. Thirdly, the prefix may be a derivation from butia, the sweet scented flower made into wreaths, in which case it would usually be bway, but sometimes might become bo-, and would carry the meaning of „festive”, „decorated.” To a native, who does not look upon a spell as an ethnological document, but as an instrument of magical power, the prefix probably conveys all three meanings at once, and the word ritual covers best all these three meanings. [przypis redakcyjny]

The reader will note that this is the same name, which another mythical log bore, also of the Lukuba clan as all dogs are, the one namely from whom he kayga'u magic is traced. Cf. Chapter X, Division V. [przypis autorski]

The relation between Mother-right and Father-love is more fully discussed in op. cit., Sex and Repression in Savage Society. [przypis autorski]

The sorcerer, who stands for conservatism, the old tribal order, the old beliefs and apportionment of power, naturally resents the innovators and the destroyers of his Weltanschauung. He is as a rule the natural enemy of the white man, who therefore hates him. [przypis autorski]

The way of hiring a masawa (sea-going) canoe is different from the usual transaction, when hiring a fishing canoe. In the latter case, the payment consists of giving part of the yield of fish, and this is called uwaga. The same term applies to all payments for objects hired. Thus, if fishing nets or hunting implements, or a small canoe for trading along the coast are hired out, part of the proceeds are given as uwaga. [przypis autorski]

The whole tribal life is based on a continuous material give and take; cf. the above mentioned article in the „Economic Journal”, March, 1921, and he disgression on this subject in Chapter VI, Division IV-VII. [przypis autorski]

The word tabu, in the meaning of taboo prohibition is used in its verbal form in the language of the Trobriands, but not very often. Tho noun „prohibition,” „sacred thing,” is always bomala, used with suffixed personal pronouns. [przypis redakcyjny]

The word vineylida suggests the former belief, as vine — female, lida — coral stone. [przypis autorski]

The words within brackets in this and in some of the following spells are free additions, necessary to make the meaning clear in the English version. They are implied by the context in the native original, though not explicitly contained. [przypis autorski]

There can be no better expression to denote the mutual relation of all these ideas than that used by Frazer to describe one of the typical forms of magic thought, the „contagion of ideas”. The subjective, psychological process leads the natives to the belief in magical contagion of things. [przypis autorski]

These natives have no idea of physiological fatherhood. See Chapter II, Division VI. [przypis redakcyjny]

These views had to be adduced at length, although touched upon already in Chapter II, Division IV, because they imply a serious error with regard to human nature in one of its most fundamental aspects. We can show up their fallacy on one example only, that of the Trobriand Society, but even this is enough to shatter their universal validity and show that the problem must be re-stated. The criticised views contain very general propositions, which, however, can be answered only empirically. And it is the duty of the field Ethnographer to answer and correct them. Because a statement is very general, it can none the less be a statement of empirical fact. General views must not be mixed up with hypothetical ones. The latter must be banished from field work; the former cannot receive too much attention. [przypis redakcyjny]

These views have been elaborated in the previously quoted article on Primitive Economics in the „Economic Journal”, March, 1921. [przypis autorski]

This advantage was probably in olden days a mutual one. Nowadays, when the fishermen can earn about ten or twenty times more by diving for pearls than by performing their share of the wasi, the exchange is as a rule a great burden on them. It is one of the most conspicuous examples of the tenacity of native custom that in spite of all the temptation which pearling offers them and in spite of the great pressure exercised upon them by the white traders, the fishermen never try to evade a wasi, and when they have received the inaugurating gift, the first calm day is always given to fishing, and not to pearling. [przypis redakcyjny]

This and the following quotations are from the Author's preliminary article on the Kula in Man, July, 1920. Article number 51, p. 100. [przypis autorski]

This does not mean that the general economic conclusions are wrong. The economic nature of Man is as a rule illustrated on imaginary savages for didactic purposes only, and the conclusions of the authors are in reality based n their study of the facts of developed economics. But, nevertheless, quite apart from the fact that pedagogically it is a wrong principle to make matters look more simple by introducing a falsehood, it is the Ethnographer's duty and right to protest against the introduction from outside of false facts into his own field of study. [przypis autorski]

This is not a fanciful construction of what an erroneous opinion might be, for I could give actual examples proving that such opinions have been set forth, but as I am not giving here a criticism of existing theories of Primitive Economics, I do not want to overload this chapter with quotations. [przypis autorski]

This is the information which I obtained during my short visit to Murua (Woodlark Island), and which was confirmed by the Trobriand islanders. Professor Seligmann states, also, that the sepulchral pots, found in this island, come from the Amphletts. Op. cit., p. 731. Compare also pp. 15 and 535. [przypis autorski]

This stanza is originally in French: Quel sâle métier que la peinture./ Quel sâle, quel sâle métier./ On peint chaque geule sans murmure,/ Pour avoir un peu de la monnaie./ [przypis redakcyjny]

This view has been more fully elaborated in the article on Primitive Economics in the „Economic Journal”, March, 1921; compare also the remarks on systematic magic in Chapter XVII, Division VII. [przypis autorski]

Thus Rivers speaks of a „group sentiment of the clan system with its accompanying communistic practices”, supposed to exist in Melanesia, and he adds that to such natives the „principle 'each man for himself' is beyond the reach of understanding” (Social Organization, p. 170). Sidney Hartland imagines that in savagery „The same code in the same Divine Name, and with equal authority, may make regulations for the conduct of commercial transactions and of the most intimate conjugal relations, as well as for a complex and splendid ceremonial of divine worship” (Primitive Law, p. 214). Both statements are misleading. Comp. also the quotations in Part I, Sections I and X. [przypis autorski]

To give an illustration, reversing the rôle of savage and civilized, of ethnographer and informant: many of my Melanesian friends, taking at its face value the doctrine of 'brotherly love' preached by Christian Missionaries and the taboo on warfare and killing preached and promulgated by Government officials, were unable to reconcile the stories about the Great War, reaching — through planters, traders, overseers, plantation hands — the remotest Melanesian or Papuan village. They were really puzzled at hearing that in one day white men were wiping out as many of their own kind as would make up several of the biggest Melanesian tribes. They forcibly concluded that the White Man was a tremendous liar, but they were not certain at which end the lie lay — whether in the moral pretence or in his bragging about war achievements. [przypis autorski]

treatise on the family among the aborigines of AustraliaThe Family among the Australian Aborigines: A Sociological Study. London University of London Press, 1913. [przypis edytorski]

Tully — Marcus Tullius Cicero (106 BC–43 BC), Roman politician, philosopher, renowned orator and writer. [przypis edytorski]

Unhappy mother — Niobe, cf. Lament IV. [przypis edytorski]

verbatim (Latin) — literally, word by word. [przypis edytorski]


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